A fiscal year is an accounting year used by governments and businesses to record their finances. It contains 12 consecutive months and can begin from any month depending on the requirements of the company. A fiscal year that begins on January 1st and ends on December 31st is called a calendar year.

All financial reports, statements, tax filings, audits, and other financial activities are recorded within the fiscal year. At the end of the fiscal year companies review their financial growth and make budgets for the coming year.

Companies can choose to opt for fiscal years that align with their business needs. Choosing a unique fiscal year can benefit the businesses that operate seasonally. Ending the financial year at a low point of business helps reduce accounting and auditing costs.

The most commonly used fiscal year are:

  • February 1 - January 31
  • October 1 - September 30
  • June 1 - May 31